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In the petrochemical industry in U.

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This is the most important document associated with the Combined Safety System in that it lays down the philosophy applicable to it. In this document are listed the hierarchical shutdowns. One must not lose sight of the fact that although the system has the ability to implement very critical shutdown features it also implements less critical unit and process shutdowns.

For instance on offshore platforms the usual stages of shutdown are as follows: The blowdown results in flaring of the gas component of the platform inventory whilst the liquid component is maintained within the various process vessels. When co-incident fire detection in the process or wellhead areas occurs one of the two strategically placed firepumps start and deluge occurs automatically.

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On some platforms main power is shutdown and the emergency generator starts when an ESD occurs whilst on others main power is maintained by the generators switching to Diesel except when there is fire in a critical area such as the wellheads. This approach is advocated in that maintaining lighting ensures that at night the firefighting crew can see what they are doing. The result of this action is total blackout of the platform including isolation of batteries except for some navaids which continue to run.

The intent of this shutdown is to maintain some battery power for when the 'black start team' reboard the platform. Shutdown Logic Diagrams — A Shutdown logic diagram also known as ESD logic diagram shows a hierarchy of shutdown level within a plant or platform - from instrumentationportal. An Example Shutdown Logic Diagram - from instrumentationportal. Other documents used in the development of the CSS configuration are as follows: These detail the fundamental configuration such as tag number, IS or NIS, alarm limits, analogue ranges etc.

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These documents which are based on the Process Cause and Effects are used by the CSS supplier as the basis for the logic. The usual appearance of them is to have the cause on the left hand side with the effect at the top with a 'X' matrix. Sometimes logic symbols are included which make the operator's engineering design requirements unambiguous. Whilst this is an excellent approach it is rather costly, thus it is infrequently used. Cause and Effect - Some projects categorize cause and effects as part of process document and some other projects consider them an instrument deliverable.

Cause and Effect is presented as a form of matrix.

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The marked intersection between both means that they are related as cause-effect. Example Cause and Effect - A useful example of an Cause and Effect diagram - from instrumentationportal. This package is deliberately separate from the executive software of the system since it is very important that software previously developed is not corrupted in any way. After completion the software is tested extensively before being included in the overall software package.

Great emphasis is placed on ensuring that the executive software cannot be accessed by unauthorised personnel and once the system is operational the configuration package is usually located onshore.

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When designing and specifying a CSS it is important to remember that it does have a fundamental common mode failure point this being of course the software. It is all very well to have duplicated and triplicated hardware but if there is a common software bug just what can be done to overcome the problem. Well the answer is that the requirements of API RP14C should be followed in that there should be a primary and secondary safety system. Usually the primary being the electronic system and the secondary, safety relief valves.

Having to use this route has great disadvantages in that it is very complex, extremely costly and difficult to maintain. The RULE is therefore - devise some form of secondary system. Construction Engineering for Instrumentation - Dattatray Nikam - This is an excellent document which details the fundamentals for Instrumentation Construction Engineering.

You will have to register to access this document - from instreng. Associated with Emergency Shutdown Systems ESD are specific valves which are used to isolate and blowdown the processes. Under emergency situations it is critical that these valves operate correctly. Thus the engineering of the valves and their associated actuators is paramount in ensuring plant safety. It runs over 2 hours and is just full of great information! Mitchell and Henry M.

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Marszal - In this paper, the authors are presenting a basic analysis framework and proposing nomenclature for the purposes of standardizing analysis methods. The paper will address in some depth, the problem of quantifying optical fire detection system performance, at least in the Geographic Coverage sense, and will allude to the future steps that will be required to extend the analysis to Scenario Coverage for fire detection and then Scenario Coverage for gas detection - from Kenexis.

Thanks to the excellent Control Engineering. These drawings, also known as Process and Instrumentation Diagrams, or Process and Control Diagrams, are essential to many industrial operations. The workbook, which has been reviewed for compliance with ISA standards and practices, covers the following subjects: Applying Symbols and Identification, 2nd Edition - This ISA classic provides the symbols and identification commonly used throughout the process industries. It also provides most of the symbols and identifiers that are unique to instrumentation and gives practical examples of their use.

Documentation changes and the evolution of control systems engineering and design work over the past decade are included in this edition. It is the intent of the authors to help people communicate ideas and concepts through the use of symbols and identifiers. Ideal for engineers, managers, sales people, technicians, and students, this book will improve and strengthen communications among not only instrumentation specialists, but all interested professionals.

Just have a look at the examples in it! It recognises that many HFE issues can be controlled simply by ensuring compliance with existing technical standards.

However, there are times where there is a gap between what can be specified in technical standards and the design features needed to support efficient, reliable and safe human performance. Compliance with this RP should normally satisfy requirements from national regulators for evidence that HFE has been adequately considered in design. Sometimes, this means the data needs to display over time in a trend display or chart.

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Sometimes, the instantaneous real-time value of the data needs to be on display too. A well-written control specification will describe how the systems integrator should manipulate the data values as it permeates the control system - from ISA and InTech. Employing Best Practices in Offshore Automation - Tom Shephard - Automation projects for offshore production facilities are becoming more challenging. Tight schedules, new standards and technologies, a high degree of system integration and customization and complex execution environments are all common.

Integrating Best Practices into a project is a proven approach for improving project outcomes. This is especially true for the Front End Engineering Design FEED phase of the project, a period when relatively low cost activities can create significant and positive results.

Make or Break with Project Management - Bill Lydon - Project management is critical to ensuring projects are implemented correctly, on time and within budget. Good project management also communicates to your management or stakeholder that you are a professional. These are thoughts from my experience managing many projects and consulting to clients on projects. The most valuable lessons were learned when taking over projects that were in serious trouble - from Automation.

The power of this list is not in its compilation, but in the knowing where the pitfalls to project most commonly lie. These lessons will be presented along with steps to avoid falling into them. Avoid Assumptions like the Plague - Michael Whitt - There are certain design tasks and group interactions key to the development of a computerized process control system. Systems integration SI represents a vast category in that development, and it includes software development, data communications, and operability issues - from ISA and InTech. Where on earth has the electronics or indeed, plain old hobbyist gone to?

Where have all our engineering leaders gone? The erratically mobile engineer In the thrall of politicians Putting your engineering brain into overdrive — with guaranteed improvements Trust your guts and not always your engineering brain Nuclear power: Or maybe, just maybe … heavenly bliss What on earth do you expect the world to do with your rubbish? Real engineering or styling and marketing? We all need an engineering mentor or advisor, teacher, role model, friend Does management know how to retain engineering professionals?

Technical Safety - This NORSOK standard describes the principles and requirements for the development of the safety design of offshore installations for production of oil and gas.

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